Abstract This is a study about the law’s accommodation of religious practice and the brewing revolution within the legal profession against that accommodation. The revolution is especially evident, though not exclusively so, in sexual equality claims vis-à-vis religion. Originally, the study asked, “Why has religion been given special status in the law?”and “Should that status continue?”As a result of intense, multiyear research, I have come to recognize that there is within the legal profession a strident movement to remove from the law the traditional accommodation of religion. To explain my findings, I have used the work of Thomas S. Kuhn1as a theoretical framework.
Bussey BW. (Thesis) The Legal Revolution Against the Accommodation of Religion: The Secular Age v. The Sexular Age. University of Leiden. 2019;. Available from: https://www.academia.edu/40452980/The_legal_revolution_against_the_accommodation_of_religion_the_secular_age_versus_the_sexular_age
Abstract The inaccessibility of abortion services in the Maritime Provinces remains a constant topic in the media, and yet little research has been conducted to explain the barriers to the procedure in the region. Despite many excellent studies on the barriers enforced at a provincial level after the Supreme Court of Canada case R. v. Morgentaler (1988), which decriminalized abortion nationwide, few studies provide insight into to the reasoning for strong opposition to abortion access in the region. This dissertation endeavours to fill this gap in the scholarship through a historical analysis of abortion politics in the Maritime Provinces between 1969 and 1988. When the federal government liberalized the abortion law in 1969 at the behest of the women’s movement, Canadian Bar Association, and Canadian Medical Association, opposition to the medical procedure came to the forefront. Medical professionals, politicians, clergy, and citizens quickly united to form pro-life organizations and became a powerful countermovement in the region. Through an exploration of medical society, government, and social movement organization records in conjunction with interviews with residents, this dissertation offers insight into the effectiveness and longevity of pro-life activism in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island. Furthermore, it illuminates the financial, physical, and psychological costs of attempting to terminate pregnancies in the region.
Abstract [ES] La proliferación de los conflictos por motivos de conciencia en el contexto sanitario ha conducido con frecuencia a un tratamiento inadecuado de los mismos. En el caso de los profesionales sanitarios, es posible observar un uso inapropiado de conceptos como el de objeción de conciencia, banalizándolo o sacralizándolo, sin considerar el alcance que la negativa a prestar un tratamiento pueda tener para el resto de personas implicadas; en el caso de los usuarios, es frecuente que sus convicciones tengan un reconocimiento limitado a la hora de tomar decisiones que atañen a su bienestar. A partir de estas premisas, se pretende analizar las tensiones entre intereses, derechos y deberes de las partes implicadas, así como las relaciones de poder que se establecen entre quienes ostentan el conocimiento experto y quienes se encuentran en situación de mayor vulnerabilidad. Este análisis persigue identificar los problemas en los distintos niveles discursivos ¿de intereses, de derechos y deberes y de relaciones de poder- para establecer posteriormente una serie de límites que condicionen el ejercicio de la libertad de conciencia tanto para los profesionales como para los usuarios. Con ello se aspira a ofrecer un marco ético-normativo que pudiera servir como referencia para la resolución de conflictos, basado en una noción de conciencia menos individualista y más relacional-feminista.
[Translation] The proliferation of conflicts for reasons of conscience in the health context has frequently led to their inadequate treatment. In the case of health professionals, it is possible to observe an inappropriate use of concepts such as conscientious objection, trivializing or sacralizing it, without considering the scope that the refusal to provide treatment may have for the rest of the people involved; In the case of users, it is common for their convictions to have limited recognition when making decisions that concern their well-being. Based on these premises, it is intended to analyze the tensions between interests, rights and duties of the parties involved, as well as the power relations that are established between those who hold expert knowledge and those who are in a situation of greater vulnerability. This analysis seeks to identify the problems at the different discursive levels – interests, rights and duties and power relations – to subsequently establish a series of limits that condition the exercise of freedom of conscience for both professionals and users. With this, it aspires to offer an ethical-regulatory framework that could serve as a reference for conflict resolution, based on a less individualist and more relational-feminist notion of conscience.
Abstract The purpose of this thesis is to demonstrate what would be an appropriate model of the regulation of conscientious objections in health care. These objections are regulated in many countries’ national legislation, however, some of them fail to provide safeguards which would secure proper balance between the two conflicting interests – the health care professional’s right to act in accordance with his conscience and individual’s right to access health care. Therefore, this thesis analyzes regulation of the conscientious objection in the legal systems of the USA, the UK and the Slovak Republic with respect to the appropriateness of such regulation and major differences which they include. The thesis suggests that the protection of conscientious objection in the USA can go too far and be too excessive, while the UK presents much more appropriate model of regulation of conscientious objection with certain limitations. Furthermore, it submits that regulation of conscientious objection in Slovakia consists in general but vague clause creating the possibilities for future controversies.The thesis also analyses different opinions on the acceptability of conscientious objection in health care and finally, it suggests conditions and limitations of conscientious objection that should be met in the regulation of national legislation in order to find appropriate balance between the competing interests of health care professionals and patient.
Abstract Freedom of religion, often recognised as “first freedom” in numerous legal traditions, also reflects the different conceptions of the place of the individual and the collectivity in society. Our study will analyse the Canadian, American and European constitutional models of freedom of religion and conscience. In a first chapter, we will examine the theoretical conceptions of religion in the social sciences as well as from the perspectives of legal approaches in order to discern the manner in which religion is conceived and to better understand its various influences. In this way, we hope to enhance our understanding of both identity and to a greater extent, culture, both in and out of law. In the second and third chapters, we will attempt to characterise the relationship between freedom of conscience and freedom of religion in Canada, as well as identify unresolved issues. In the final chapter, we will observe how freedom of conscience has been interpreted in the American legal setting as well as in the European Union, by way of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR). We hypothesise that a better understanding of the relationship between the freedoms of conscience and religion can be arrived at by clarifying the theoretical conceptions of religion and conscience in comparative constitutional law.
Extract In this work the institutionalisation of Hospital Ethics Committees in the USA and in Germany will be analysed by focussing on nurses’ participation and the representation of caring issues. Therefore, questions about the design of Hospital Ethics Committees and how their practices really look like, will be raised. The central question is, how the traditional care ethos of the helping professions in medicine and nursing can find its place in discussions of these committees while hospitals have increasingly been organised along economic criteria.
. . . .My observations and interviews in the field work show that care practices in the tradition of Hippocratic Medicine are no longer self-evident for the helping professions. Physicians and nurses do rather struggle for a care ethos especially with regard to end-of- life questions and regulations of tube-feeding. The “cases” for ethics consultation brought into the committees by physicians and nurses did not rarely emerge as social problems and as a lack of professional competence. The problems appeared to be solvable by translating them into a language of principles and making the process manageable. These principle-based discussions in the practical arena of the hospital resemble discourse practices embedded within the larger bioethical debates in the political arena. Technical procedures given by management and administration do fit into the use of abstract principles and contribute to a language that limits the possibilities to think – what is at stake for patients – in terms of caring relations rather than thinking in terms of rules, regulations and control.
Abstract What are moral values and where do they come from? David Hume argued that moral values were the product of a range of passions,inherent to human nature, that aim at the common good of society. Recent developments in game theory, evolutionary biology, animal behaviour, psychology and neuroscience suggest that Hume was right to suppose that humans have such passions. This dissertation reviews these developments, and considers their implications for moral philosophy. I first explain what Darwinian adaptations are, and how they generate behaviour. I then explain that, contrary to the Hobbesian caricature of life in the state of nature, evolutionary theory leads us to expect that organisms will be social, cooperative and even altruistic under certain circumstances. I introduce four main types of cooperation – kin altruism,coordination to mutual advantage, reciprocity and conflict resolution –and provide examples of ‘adaptations for cooperation’ from nonhuman species. I then review the evidence for equivalent adaptations for cooperation in humans. Next, I show how this Humean-Darwinian account of the moral sentiments can be used to make sense of traditional positions in meta-ethics; how it provides a rich deductive framework in which to locate and make sense of a wide variety of apparently contradictory positions in traditional normative ethics; and how it clearly demarcates the problems of applied ethics. I defend this version of ethical naturalism against the charge that it commits ‘the naturalistic fallacy’. I conclude that evolutionary theory provides the best account yet of the origins and status of moral values, and that moral philosophy should be thought of as a branch of natural history.
(Conscience and freedom of conscience: An analysis of conflicts of conscience in Swedish society and of the concepts of conscience)
Abstract This thesis has several aims which are related in various ways. The first task is to study conflicts of conscience in Swedish society. In this type of conflict, the terms conscience and freedom of conscience are central terms. Thus it is vital that they are understood and related to when analyzing the conflicts themselves. The second task is therefore to study and come to grips with the term conscience, suggest a definition, and then apply the various ways of understanding conscience to the conflicts of conscience in order to answer the question of whether or not an individual should follow his or her conscience. The third task is to study the term freedom of conscience and provide a definition. In addition, a typology is provided and applied to the conflicts of conscience studied in order to answer the question of whether or not there is ample freedom to follow one’s conscience. Finally, I take a stand for one of the types in the typology. The first task is undertaken in Chapter 2, the second task comprises Chapter 3 and the third task, Chapter 4.
Abstract Patients who refuse a specific medical treatment for religious reasons must often overcome strongly entrenched presumptions held by physicians and judges, presumptions frequently based on personal values. A case in point is the refusal of blood transfusion therapy by Jehovah’s Witnesses. This paper rests on the following theory: The sanctity of life principle is not necessarily violated by respecting the autonomous decision of a patient who, for religious or moral reasons, chooses one therapy over another that may be favored by the treating physician. Where a patient has decided for conscientious reasons against a certain treatment in any given medical situation, the need to be informed will shift from the patient to the physician. The physician must understand the nature of the religious or moral conviction as well as his own moral and legal obligation to respect the patient’s wishes by providing the best Medical care under the circumstances.